What is Lie Detection?

Lie detection is a collection of questioning techniques used along with technology which records physiological functions in order to find out the truth and deception as a response. Lie detection is generally used by the police and other law enforcement branches of the government. A wide range of technologies exist to help lie detection. The polygraph is the most recognizable and famous among all of them.

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The Polygraph

A polygraph is essentially a combination of medical devices used to track changes that occurs within the human body. The subject undergoing a lie detector test is asked questions related to a certain incident or event.

The questioner then sees how the person's respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate and electro dermal-activity vary when compared with normal levels. Fluctuations may be a sign of deception. But this assumption is subject to interpretation.

Lie detection can also be used by employers to screen prospective employees. Many government entities require candidates to undergo a polygraph exam. The polygraph examination itself is designed to search for involuntary responses that occurs in a person's body when the individual is put under stress.

Deception is considered a form of stress. However, the machine is unable to detect if a person is actually lying or not.

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What is a Facial Expression?

The positions or motions of muscles located underneath the facial skin is described as facial expression. 

The emotional state of an individual is made apparent to observers through movement of these muscles. A facial expression is a type of non-verbal communication. 

Facial expressions play an important role in sign language. 

This language include expressions in its phraseology to communicate effectively.

Eye Contact

Eyes play a major role in facial expressions. Factors like the blinking rate can show whether the individual is lying or is telling the truth

Nervousness is also displayed. Eye contact is also an important part of communication. However, differences in culture may affect the understanding of eye contact.

The eye of a person reveals his or her true feelings. Blink rates reveal a person's nervousness. Stress levels are directly correlated with a person's blink rates. 

Eye contact in certain cultures can signal competitiveness. Lowering of eyes in some cultures signifies respect. However, in Western societies, lack of the same eye contact means the individual lacks self-confidence.


Universality Hypothesis

The universality hypothesis of facial expressions assume that certain expressions are common across different cultures. Examples of universality include sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise and fear. This hypothesis is both supported and criticized by psychologists.


What is Micro Expression Analysis?

Micro expressions are transient expressions in the face. They disclose underlying emotions that the individual is trying not to show. Micro expressions usually occur around the mouth and eyes. They are of extremely short duration, and last for less than one-tenth of a second. Although micro expressions are mostly facial, they are also displayed in the body. Twitches of the leg and small hand movements can be cited as examples.

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What is Body Language?

Body language is a form of non-verbal communication. Through body language, an individual may reveal his or her feelings or intentions that are not being spoken. Such behaviors include gestures, eye-movements, body posture and facial expressions. Body language is subconscious behavior.


State of mind

Body language reveals the state of mind of the individual. It may mean either attentiveness, a relaxed state, intoxication, aggression, boredom, amusement or pleasure. It plays a major role in relationships and communication. It plays an important part in an individual's professional life. Body language can be revealed both consciously and unconsciously.

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Communication strategies

Body language plays a vital part in human communication strategies. The body language of one person can be mirrored by another to put the first individual at ease.

This tactic is generally used in interviews. Mirroring the language of another person also conveys that you have understood what he or she is feeling or trying to communicate Physical expressions like pointing, slouching and waving are all types of non-verbal communication.

Human beings move their body when they communicate. This helps in easing the mental effort. Gestures have the capability to stress a particular point or can relay a message. An individual's posture may reveal great interest or boredom.


What is Language Precision?

Language precision means using the correct phrase or word to impart precisely the correct idea. Multiple words may share identical definition but can have different shades of meaning or dissimilar connotations.

One example is "scent" and "odor".

As nouns, the two words mean "a smell of an object or something". But in general usage, a scent is regarded as a pleasant smell, but an odor is an unpleasant one.

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Need for Precision

Language precision is very important in modern life. Proper communication is critical. Use of correct language solves problems by breaking down complex issues into smaller parts. The use of abstractions forbids a direct discussion. Indirections tend to generalize debatable subjects. Issues that are complex are simplified to the point of destruction of meaning. Incorrect use of language makes debate unfeasible.

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Politicians slip in vague terms and statements that are unclaimed and then spread it. The power of such bad language is in proportion to voice clearly our own thoughts. Ambiguous thoughts are created by ambiguous language. Language must have the power to grip reality as it is. Precision in language is worth the trouble.


What is Communication?

Communication is the act of sharing and understanding of information between two parties. Human beings in the simplest of communications make the use of language to communicate with each other. Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver developed a basic communication diagram that mathematically explains the process of communication.

According to this diagram, the person wanting to share specific information:

1. The sender encodes the information that comprises of thoughts, feelings etc
2. Then transmits this message through a medium
3. The receiver decodes the message to understand the information

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Verbal communication takes place when a person speaks to transfer information to the other person or group of persons, for example, face-to-face, radio, telephone, television, etc.

The act of speaking here needs to be clear for this kind of communication to be effective. The pace, pitch, tone and quality are important constituents of verbal communication. 

Non-verbal communication involves the transference of information, knowingly or unknowingly, through body language, facial expressions, appearance, etc. 

This form of communication is very crucial since it makes up for almost one third of verbal communication between two parties. 

Written communication makes use of written words, signs, codes, pictures, etc. to transmit information, for example letters, emails, books, newspapers, etc. This form of communication possesses a certain degree of clarity and hence is preferred for formal communication.